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OMNIAL GRAMATIKE 2007 (Grammar bocata)


Introduction

Omnial is a highly euphonic and easy to learn language.

The best way to solve the problem of language barrier is to use an auxiliary constructed language but, of course, Omnial is not intended to supplant or replace any national language.

The design principles of Omnial are phonetically spelled, simple, regular, recognizable, pleasant in sound, and the target of some aggressive goals for ease of learning (ability to learn in a weekend).


Grammar

Alphabet and pronunciation

The alphabet is:

A a: bag B b: boy C c: chin D d: dog,
E e: bed F f : fat G g: goal H h: hen,
I I: machine J j : jam K k: kind L l: lip,
M m: mix N n: now O o: omni P p: pen ,

Q q: German "Bach", or Scottish "loch" or, Spanish "jamon", or Arabic "qof".

R r: rock S s: sin T t: tip ,
U u: rule V v: vest W w: west X x: ship,
Y y: yes Z z: zoo.



1.-Each letter is pronounced with only one sound, always the same.


2.-The main stress of a multisyllabic word is placed on the vowel preceding the last consonant.


3.-Some ordinary consonant endings do not change the original stress of the word:


a.- The plural morphemes: -s, -es.
b.- The
adjectival and adverbial suffixes: -al, -im.
c.- The tense morphemes of
verb : -it , -on.


Personal Pronouns

They are:


1. First person: 'mi' ('I','me') and 'nos' ('we').
2. Second person:'tu' ('you') and 'vos' (plural)
3. Third person
People: 'Ile' (also:'ilin','ilul','iles','ilines','ilules')
Things: 'It'


4. General subject is expressed by the pronoun 'on'.


5. Reflexive pronoun: 'se' ('oneself').
It is used only to the subject of the verb.


6. Possessives are formed by adding the adjectival
ending '-al': 'mial', 'nosal', 'tual', 'vosal' , 'seal'.


Noun


It's definite article 'le' is invariable.


1.-The singular noun can end in any vowel or consonant.
To form the
plural are added the endings:
'-s' (after
vowel) or '-es' (after consonant).


2.-Nouns that show living beings are epicene.
The genre affixes '-in' and '-ul' are used only if necessary.


3.-The noun functions are expressed by prepositions and word
order:
subject before the verb and object after the verb.


Verb


The verb is absolutely invariant in person, number and gender.


The verbs end in:


'-it' in the past tense,
'-on' in the
future tense,
'-a' in the
present tense, but the verb esar can use 'es' (from esa).


'-us' in the conditional,
'-ek' in the
imperative,


'-ar' in the infinitive.
'-im' in the
gerund.
'-ante' in the
active participle.
'-ed' in the
passive participle.


Qualifiers


They can end in any vowel or consonant.
They do not show inflection or agreement in form with the word they modify.


The adjectives can be derived by adding '-al'.


The adverbs can be derived by the addition of the '-im' ending.



Comparison is done analytically:


Superiority is made with the word 'plus'.
Inferiority is made with the word 'minus'
Equality is made with the word 'iso' or 'equal'.


The absolute superlative with 'multe', 'tres', and the suffix '-isime'.


For the comparative is used the conjunction 'kiam'.


The superlative of superiority with 'le plus'
The
superlative of inferiority with 'le minus'.


Specifiers


There are:


1-Demonstratives: 'iste', ('tuste'), 'taste', with the reiterative particles 'ci' and 'la'.


2-Undefinit Adjectives: 'kelke', 'irge', 'altre', 'same', 'cetere', 'cake'.


3-Undefinit Quantifiers: 'omni', 'plure', 'poli', 'poke', 'multe', 'varie', 'ambe', 'asez' and 'trop'.


4-Definit Quantifiers (cardinal numbers) and Personal Pronouns: Both groups also are specifiers.


Numbers


The cardinal numbers are:


'nul' (0),
'un' (1), 'du' (2), 'tri' (3), 'tetra' (4), 'penta' (5), 'hexa' (6), 'hepta'(7), 'okta'(8), 'nona'(9),
'dek' (10 = 101),
'cente'(10 x 10 = 100: 102),
'mile' (10 x 10 x 10 = 1000 = 103),
'milion' or 'mega'(1000 x 1000 = 106), 'giga'(109), 'tera'(1012), 'peta' (1015)


859 672 431 =
'oktacente pentadek none miliones,
hexacente heptadek du miles,
tetracente tridek un.


The suffix of numbers are:


'-esme' for ordinal adjectives.
'-al' for
adjectival numerals.
'-im' for
adverbial numerals.
'-are' for collective nouns.
'-iple' for multiple nouns.
'-ave' for fractional nouns.
'-foyim' for reiteration: trifoyim = three times.


Vocabulary Expansion

Word Building


A).Derivation:


1.- The ending vowel in any word has never semantic meaning.


2.-The affixes of the verb are always different to the ones of the noun and the adjective.


3.-To form verbs from nouns the suffixes are used only if necessary because usually
the ending '-ar' is sufficient.



B).Compound Words:


1.-They are formed by using two words to create a new word by juxtaposition,
the content word appearing last.



C).Euphony:


1.- When the suffix (or the suffixed word), finishes in 'a', 'e' or 'o', this open vowel will disappear, but if it is `i' or `u' this ending vowel remains:

`fratal' and `tetruple', from `frate' and `tetra'.

`mial' and `duesme', from `mi' and `du'.


2.- When the suffix (or the sufixed word), begins with a consonant, the vowel 'o' is added before it (euphonic epenthesis).

'semanofine' from `fine' and `semane'

'cardiologe' from `cardie' and `loge'


3.- At both cases, if an infinitive is prefixed, is deleted the `–ar' morpheme.

'ideolingue' from `idear' and `lingue'


Neologisms


A). International Words:


If there are Greek or Latin roots in scientific or technical language, these are taken into our language.


Any other word of any other language, if they are internationally known can be taken as a neologism.


In both cases they are adapted to our morphology.



B) Proper Nouns:


They are transcribed as literally as possible,
and within brackets is the phonetical transcription.


The stress is indicated with capital letter:


    • Dante(dAnte)
    • Shakespeare(xEspir)
    • Rouseau(gusO)
    • Cervantes(serbAntes)
    • Fuster (fustEr)
    • Sokrates (sOkrates)


Sample text

FRATES


Multe humanes ambula apud mi, sed mi ne cognosa iles.
For mi, iles estrane es. Sed tu, ki es lontane
ultra desertes , lakes, insules et planumes
fratim mi parla a tu, sif mial nokte es tual
sif mial okules plora tual lamentum, sif nosal krides es equal
fratim mi parla a tu, malgrate diferenteze de nosal paroles
malgrate ke tu es nikre et mi es albe, sif nos hava equal vulnerumes
fratim mi parla a tu, supra omni le fronteres
supra mures et tankes, sif es equal nosal somnes
fratim mi parla a tu: nos hava comun patrie
du lukte, et comun ambe, mi dona a tu mial manue.

Celso Emílio Ferreiro

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